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      2018高考備考資料:英語倒裝句常見結構及用法

      發布時間:2018-06-05    來源:泰來教育

        完全倒裝結構及用法

        一、具有“地點”意義的副詞、時間意義的副詞,以及能表移動方向的副詞放在句首,句子的主語是名詞,謂語是連系動詞或表示“位置移動”的單個不及物動詞時,該動詞放在主語前面。如:There goes the bell.

        注意:當主語是人稱代詞時,盡管副詞在句首,主謂不倒裝。如:Out they rushed.

        二、具有“方位”意義的介詞短語或副詞短語在句中作狀語或表語放在句首,謂語是連系動詞be,以及表示“位于、存在”或“位置移動”的單個不及物動詞時,該動詞放在主語前面。如:Among the hens is a big cock.

        三、作表語的形容詞或分詞放在句首時,連系動詞放在主語前面[英語語法]。如:Present at the party were the ladies in the big city.

        四、全部倒裝是只將句子中的謂語動詞全部置于主語之前。全部倒裝常見結構有:

        1) here, there, now, then, thus等副詞置于句首, 謂語動詞常用be, come, go, lie, run。

        There goes the bell.

        Then came the chairman.

        Here is your letter.

        2) 表示運動方向的副詞或地點狀語置于句首,謂語表示運動的動詞。

        Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.

        Ahead sat an old woman.

        注意:上述全部倒裝的句型結構的主語必須是名詞,如果主語是人稱代詞則不能完全倒裝。

        Here he comes. Away they went.

        部分倒裝結構及用法

        把謂語的助動詞、情態動詞放在主語前面為部分倒裝。在下列情形中出現部分倒裝。

        一、把“so ... that ...”句型中的“so + 形容詞 / 副詞”部分放在句首時,be動詞或助動詞放在主語前面。如:

        So frightened was the girl that she daren't move an inch further.

        二、用so,neither或nor構成的特殊句型,表示另一人或物也具有和前面提到的同樣情況時,出現部分倒裝。如:

        Jim asked the question. So did Lily.

        三、把具有“否定”意義的詞語放在句首時,出現部分倒裝。如:

        Never shall I forget your advice.

        四、注意下面幾種情形的倒裝:

        1. “only + 狀語從句”和“not until + 從句”位于句首時,在主句中進行倒裝。如:

        Not until the child slept did the mother leave the room.

        2. “not only...but also...”連接兩個分句,not only位于句首時,倒裝在not only所在分句進行。如:

        Not only were the children moved but also the adults showed their pity.

        3. “no sooner...than...”句型中的no sooner位于句首時,倒裝在no sooner 主句中進行;“hardly / scarcely...when...”句型中的hardly位于句首時,倒裝在hardly / scarcely主句中進行。如:

        No sooner had I gone in the house than it began to rain.

        4. 當if引導從句表示虛擬語氣時,if可省,再把從句中的were,had或should放在主語前面,形成部分倒裝。如:

        Had we been present, such a thing would not have happened.

        5. 當as引導讓步狀語從句時,參照下面的形式進行特殊倒裝。如:

        Proud as these women are, they still look very weak. (作表語的形容詞提前)

        Student as he is, he often works in the factory. (作表語的名詞提前,同時省去不定冠詞a)

        Hard as she worked, she couldn't support her family. (修飾謂語動詞的副詞提前)

        Try as he would, he might fail again. (帶助動詞的謂語動詞提前)

        五、部分倒裝是指將謂語的一部分如助動詞或情態動詞倒裝至主語之前。沒有助動詞或情態動詞,則需添加助動詞do, does或did,并將其置于主語之前。

        1.句首為否定或半否定的詞語,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until…,not only…(but also), hardly/scarcely…(when), no sooner…( than) 等。

        Never have I seen such a performance.

        Nowhere will you find the answer to this question.

        Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.

        Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.

        Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.

        No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her.

        2.so, either, nor作部分倒裝

        Tom can speak French. So can Jack.

        If you won''t go, neither will I.

        3. only在句首要倒裝的情況

        Only in this way, can you learn English well.

        Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.

        Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.

        4. as, though引導的倒裝句

        as / though引導的讓步從句必須將表語或狀語提前 (形容詞, 副詞, 分詞, 實義動詞提前)。

        Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.

        Young boy as he is, he knows a lot about basketball teams.

        Hard as it was, they reached the peak of the mountain.

        5.其他部分倒裝

        1)so… that 句型中的so 位于句首時,需倒裝。

        So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch.

        2)在某些表示祝愿的句型中:

        May you all be happy.

        3)在虛擬語氣條件句中從句謂語動詞有were, had, should等詞,可將if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主語之前,采取部分倒裝。

        Were I you, I would try it again.

        常見考法 :

            1. not until 引導時間狀語(從句)時的倒裝;

        2. 含so 的句子倒裝與不倒裝的區別;

        3. only引導狀語或狀語從句時的倒裝;

        4. 虛擬條件句省略If時的倒裝。

        誤區提醒1) Not until the early years of the 19th century___ what heat is

        A. man did know B. man knew C. didn''t man know D. did man know

        解析:答案為D.否定詞not在句首,要求用部分倒裝的句子結構。

        2) Do you know Tom bought a new car?

        I don''t know, ___.

        A. nor don''t I care B. nor do I care

        C. I don''t care, neither D. I don''t care also

        解析:答案為B.句中的nor引出部分倒裝結構,表示"也不"。由 so, neither, nor引導的倒裝句,表示前一情況的重復出現。其中, so用于肯定句, 而 neither, nor 用在否定句中。

        3) --- You forgot your purse when you went out. --- Good heavens, ____ .

        A. so did I B. so I did C. I did so D. I so did

        解析:錯選A。 本題空處不表跟前面情況一樣,只是對上述情況的隨聲附和,所以不用倒裝。正確答案B。

        4)Only when the war was over ____ to hometown.

        A. did the soldier return B. the soldier returned

        C. returned the soldier D. the soldier did return

        解析:only 引導狀語或狀語從句時主句要用部分倒裝。此題為一般過去時,須在主語前加did, 故正確答案為A。

        5) ____ for the free tickets, I would not have gone to see films so often.

        A. If it is not B Were it not C. Had it not been D. If they were not

        解析:錯選A。此題關鍵是前后時態要呼應。本題是一個虛擬條件句,根據主句的時態,應該是對過去情況的虛擬,所以往前推一個時態的話,應該是過去完成時。故正確答案為C。
       

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